Mohandas K. Gandhi, the father of modern India and one of history's greatest advocates of non-violent action, was born on this date in 1869.
As a young attorney, Gandhi moved from India to South Africa in 1893 where he confronted racial discrimination, including apartheid laws. In 1915, he returned to India permanently to lead a nationwide movement of non-violent action in support of Indian home rule. Over the course of the next thirty-two years, Gandhi spoke and wrote about, organized, and led a series of actions including marches, acts of civil disobedience, strikes, and boycotts designed to encourage the British to leave India. In 1947, the British granted Indian independence.
On January 30, 1948, Gandhi was assassinated.
Gandhi published the following in Young India, a newspaper he edited, in 1925:
Seven Social Sins
Politics without principles
Wealth without work
Pleasure without conscience
Knowledge without character
Commerce without morality
Science without humanity
Worship without sacrifice